Reply – Re: Out of Towners?
Your Name
or Cancel
In Reply To
Re: Out of Towners?
— by anonymous anonymous
The Hague Congress, 1872

After the Paris Commune (1871), Bakunin characterised Marx's ideas as authoritarian, and predicted that if a Marxist party came to power its leaders would end up as bad as the ruling class they had fought against (notably in his Statism and Anarchy). In 1872, the conflict in the First International climaxed with a final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress. This clash is often cited as the origin of the long-running conflict between anarchists and Marxists. From then on, the Marxist and anarchist currents of socialism had distinct organisations, at various points including rival "internationals".

This split is sometimes called the "red" and "black" divide, red referring to the Marxists and black referring to the anarchists. Otto von Bismarck remarked, upon hearing of the split at the First International "Crowned heads, wealth and privilege may well tremble should ever again the Black and Red unite!"

In 1872, the organization was relocated to New York City. The First International disbanded four years later, at the 1876 Philadelphia conference. Attempts to revive the organization over the next five years failed. However, the Second International was established in 1889 as its successor. Meanwhile, the anarchists continued to consider that they were unfairly ejected from the IWA, and in 1872 held a new congress at Saint-Imier over two days, September 15 and 16, 1872, to establish the International Working People's Association. Later, after both rival internationals had collapsed, the anarcho-syndicalists decided to re-found the "First International" in a congress held at Berlin in 1922 as the International Workers Association. The IWA still exists.